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debian [2011/12/28 16:43]
127.0.0.1 external edit
debian [2021/04/17 10:51]
carl
Line 1: Line 1:
-ComputerStuff > [[GnuLinux]] > [[DistributionsLinux]] +Debian [[gnulinux|GNU/Linux]] is the Operating System I use at home since 2001 and at work from 2001 to 2004.
- +
-(([[Debian]])) is the Operating System I use at home and used to use at work.+
  
 Official website: http://www.debian.org/ Official website: http://www.debian.org/
  
-As introduction, please read the ((http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/[[Debian]] entry)) at ((http://www.wikipedia.org/ Wikipedia)). +===== Package management =====
- +
-{{ToC}} +
- +
-=== Distributions === +
-There a 3 distributions at the same time: +
-  * unstable (sid) with the latest versions of the softwares +
-  * testing (currently etch) +
-  * stable (currently sarge) +
-   +
-==== Sarge ==== +
-Is the stable distribution since 6 June 2005. +
- +
-How to install it? ((http://www.debian.org/devel/debian-installer/ with the debian-installer)) +
- +
-==== Backports ==== +
-Backports are ports from software coming from unstable or testing for stable. +
- +
-  * http://www.backports.org/ +
-  * http://debian.home-dn.net/ +
- +
-==== Repositories ==== +
-  * http://www.apt-get.org/ where to find unofficial packages +
-  * http://www.dotdeb.org/ unofficial packages for [[PHP]], [[MySQL]], [[qmail]] +
- +
-=== Package management ===+
 There are several front-ends: There are several front-ends:
-  * command line with apt (cf. ((http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/apt-howto/ APT HOWTO))+  * command line with apt (cf. [[http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/apt-howto/APT HOWTO]]
-  * text menu with aptitude +  * text menu with aptitude (or command line
-  * GUI with ((http://articles.linmagau.org/modules.php?op=modload&name=Sections&file=index&req=viewarticle&artid=389&page=1 synaptic)) or gnome-apt +  * [[http://www.argon.org/~roderick/apt-pinning.htmlUsing APT with more than 2 sources]] 
-  * ((http://www.argon.org/~roderick/apt-pinning.html Using APT with more than 2 sources)) +  * [[http://www.pthree.org/2007/08/12/aptitude-vs-apt-get/aptitude vs apt-get]], 12/08/2007 
-  * ((http://www.pthree.org/2007/08/12/aptitude-vs-apt-get/ aptitude vs apt-get)), 12/08/2007 +  * cleanup: [[http://www.debian-administration.org/articles/134Removing unnecessary packages with deborphan]]:
-  * cleanup: ((http://www.debian-administration.org/articles/134 Removing unnecessary packages with deborphan)):+
   <code>deborphan | sudo xargs apt-get remove -y</code>   <code>deborphan | sudo xargs apt-get remove -y</code>
  
-=== Documentation === +===== Documentation ===== 
-  * ((http://people.via.ecp.fr/~alexis/formation-linux/ Formation [[Debian]] GNU/Linux)) par Alexis de Lattre, sans aucun doute la meilleure ressource en français +  * [[https://formation-debian.viarezo.fr/|Formation Debian GNU/Linux]] par Alexis de Lattre, sans aucun doute la meilleure ressource en français (seul problème dernière mise à jour 2013)
- +
-=== Articles === +
-  * Fully Automatic Installation (FAI) +
-    * ((http://www.linuxplanet.com/linuxplanet/tutorials/5667/1/ Rolling Out Unattended [[Debian]] Installations (Part 1)))Requirements and Overview by Carla Schroder, 06/12/04 +
-    * ((http://www.linuxplanet.com/linuxplanet/tutorials/5675/1/ Rolling Out Unattended [[Debian]] Installations (Part 2))): Giving Clients The Boot by Carla Schroder, 13/12/04 +
-  * ((http://www.howtoforge.com/server_monitoring_with_munin_monit_debian_etch Server Monitoring With munin And monit On [[Debian]] Etch)), 24/04/07 +
- +
-=== How to make [[Debian]] packages? === +
-  * http://www.kclee.com/clemens/unix/HowToCreateYourOwnDebianPackage.html (30/11/2002) +
-  * http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/l-debpkg.html (10/07/2003) +
-  * http://linuxdevices.com/articles/AT8047723203.html (24/10/2003) +
-  * ((http://women.alioth.debian.org/wiki/index.php/English/BuildingWithoutHelper How to make a [[Debian]] package without using a helper)) (09/01/2005) +
-  * ((http://familiasanchez.net/~sanchezr/?page=debrepository Automatic [[Debian]] Package Repository HOWTO)) +
-  * ((http://www.isotton.com/debian/docs/repository-howto/repository-howto.html [[Debian]] Repository HOWTO)) +
-  * ((http://www.debian-administration.org/tag/building%20packages building packages section)) of ((http://www.debian-administration.org/ [[Debian]] Administration)) +
- +
-=== Tricks === +
-  * ((http://www.troudnez.net/article40.html Quelques trucs pour [[Debian]] 3.0)): aptitude, les versions [[Debian]], compilation noyau, etc. +
-  * ((http://www.egs-howto.com/fr/systemes/[[Knoppix]].php Comment utiliser [[Knoppix]] pour installer une distribution [[Debian]]?)) +
-  * ((http://glasnost.beeznest.org/articles/77 Install a [[Debian]] Woody with GNOME 2.2 and OOo 1.1)) +
-  * ((http://www.debian-administration.org/ [[Debian]] Administration)) +
-  * ((http://lists.bxlug.be/pipermail/linux-bruxelles/2005-June/027666.html Problème apt-get et dselect))+
  
 ==== Comment obtenir la liste des packages installés? ==== ==== Comment obtenir la liste des packages installés? ====
 <code>dpkg --get-selections | grep " install$"</code> <code>dpkg --get-selections | grep " install$"</code>
  
-==== Sid dans Sarge ==== +==== ifconfig deprecated in Buster ==== 
-http://web.archive.org/web/20030708222323/home.bellsouth.net/p/s/community.dll?ep=87&subpageid=89775&ck=&userid=1&userpw=.&uh=1,0,+Replaced by 
 +<code>ip addr</code> 
 +[[https://linoxide.com/linux-how-to/install-missing-ifconfig-command-on-debian/|source]] 
 + 
 +==== Find third-party software ==== 
 +> The aptitude command might help you to find any 3rd party software package currently installed on your Debian system.
  
-<code>aptitude install debootstrap +<code>sudo aptitude search '~i(!~ODebian)'</code>
-mkdir /sid-root +
-debootstrap sid /sid-root http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ +
-#output: +
-... +
-I: Base system installed successfully. +
-umount: /sid-root/dev/pts: not mounted +
-umount: /sid-root/dev/shm: not mounted +
-umount: /sid-root/proc/bus/usb: not mounted+
  
-echo "proc-sid /sid-root/proc proc none 0 0" >> /etc/fstab +[[https://linuxconfig.org/how-to-upgrade-debian-9-stretch-to-debian-10-buster|source]]
-mount proc-sid /sid-root/proc -t proc +
-cp /etc/hosts /sid-root/etc/hosts +
-chroot /sid-root /bin/bash +
-# on est dans la geole +
-#fix sources.list +
-apt-setup +
-# changer sarge en unstable +
-vi /etc/apt/sources.list+
  
-# changer le password de root +==== Problème de son pour un utilisateur ==== 
-passwd root+Il arrive qu'un utilisateur ne puisse pas faire fonctionner le son. Il y a plusieurs choses à vérifier : 
 +  * l'utilisateur est-il dans le groupe //audio// ? Pour vérifier : 
 +<code>groups user</code> 
 +  * si ce n'est pas le cas, l'ajouter, puis rebooter : 
 +<code>sudo adduser user audio</code> 
 +  * vérifier que le son n'est pas sur //mute// dans alsamixer (s'il y a "MM" sous le potentiomètre, appuyer sur la touche M pour qu'il ne soit plus en sourdine) 
 +<code>alsamixer</code> 
 +  * pavucontrol : vérifier que la sourdine (mute) n'est pas activée ; c'est un outil graphique qu'on peut lancer de la ligne de commande : 
 +<code>pavucontrol &</code>
  
-#pour avoir un login sur F10 +===== Links =====
-# attention: pas dans la geole! +
-echo "10:23:respawn:/usr/sbin/chroot /sid-root "\ +
-"/sbin/getty 38400 tty10" >> /etc/inittab +
-init q</code>+
  
-=== Links ===+  * [[http://meetings-archive.debian.net/pub/debian-meetings/2007/fosdem/| Présentations Debian au FOSDEM 2007]] (en anglais)
  
-  ((http://www.dccalliance.org/ [[Debian]] Common Core)) +===== Installing ===== 
-  * ((http://meetings-archive.debian.net/pub/debian-meetings/2007/fosdem/ Présentations [[Debian]] au FOSDEM 2007)) (en anglais)+  * [[debian:buster|Debian 10 buster]] 
 +  * [[https://www.linuxquestions.org/questions/debian-26/how-to-provide-non-free-firmware-files-to-the-debian-jessie-installer-4175542680/|How to provide non-free firmware files to the Debian Installer]]: this is for Jessie, I suppose it is very similar with more recent versions
debian.txt · Last modified: 2021/12/09 09:09 by carl